Category: Reciprocating steam engine

Reciprocating steam engine

Steam enginemachine using steam power to perform mechanical work through the agency of heat. A brief treatment of steam engines follows. For full treatment of steam power and production and of steam engines and turbines, see Energy Conversion: Steam engines. In a steam engine, hot steam, usually supplied by a boilerexpands under pressureand part of the heat energy is converted into work.

The remainder of the heat may be allowed to escape, or, for maximum engine efficiencythe steam may be condensed in a separate apparatus, a condenserat comparatively low temperature and pressure.

For high efficiency, the steam must fall through a wide temperature range as a consequence of its expansion within the engine. The most efficient performance—that is, the greatest output of work in relation to the heat supplied—is secured by using a low condenser temperature and a high boiler pressure. The steam may be further heated by passing it through a superheater on its way from the boiler to the engine.

A common superheater is a group of parallel pipes with their surfaces exposed to the hot gases in the boiler furnace. By means of superheaters, the steam may be heated beyond the temperature at which it is produced by boiling water. In a reciprocating engine, the piston and cylinder type of steam engine, steam under pressure is admitted into the cylinder by a valve mechanism.

As the steam expands, it pushes the piston, which is usually connected to a crank on a flywheel to produce rotary motion. In the double-acting engine, steam from the boiler is admitted alternately to each side of the piston.

In a simple steam engine, expansion of the steam takes place in only one cylinder, whereas in the compound engine there are two or more cylinders of increasing size for greater expansion of the steam and higher efficiency; the first and smallest piston is operated by the initial high-pressure steam and the second by the lower-pressure steam exhausted from the first. In the steam turbinesteam is discharged at high velocity through nozzles and then flows through a series of stationary and moving blades, causing a rotor to move at high speeds.

Steam turbines are more compact and usually permit higher temperatures and greater expansion ratios than reciprocating steam engines. The turbine is the universal means used to generate large quantities of electric power with steam. The earliest steam engines were the scientific novelties of Hero of Alexandria in the 1st century cesuch as the aeolipilebut not until the 17th century were attempts made to harness steam for practical purposes.

In Thomas Savery patented a pump with hand-operated valves to raise water from mines by suction produced by condensing steam. In about another Englishman, Thomas Newcomendeveloped a more efficient steam engine with a piston separating the condensing steam from the water. In James Watt greatly improved the Newcomen engine by adding a separate condenser to avoid heating and cooling the cylinder with each stroke.

Watt then developed a new engine that rotated a shaft instead of providing the simple up-and-down motion of the pump, and he added many other improvements to produce a practical power plant.

A cumbersome steam carriage for roads was built in France by Nicholas-Joseph Cugnot as early as Richard Trevithick in England was the first to use a steam carriage on a railway; in he built a steam locomotive that in February made a successful run on a horsecar route in Wales. The adaptation of the steam engine to railways became a commercial success with the Rocket of English engineer George Stephenson in Robert Fulton applied the steam engine to a passenger boat in the United States in Though the steam engine gave way to the internal-combustion engine as a means of vehicle propulsion, interest in it revived in the second half of the 20th century because of increasing air-pollution problems caused by the burning of fossil fuels in internal-combustion engines.

Steam engine. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Steam engine machine. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. The rapid growth of industry in Britain from about the midth century and somewhat later in various other countries created a need for….

Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today.An Advanced Uniflow Steam Engine has been built to overcome some of the limitations of traditional steam engines. In the history of the steam enginedevelopment was prematurely stopped after the introduction of the more efficient diesel engine and steam turbine in the early s.

A uniflow steam engine is an alternative to the more common compound steam engine. Description: Design Objectives :. Engine Operation :. Advanced Uniflow Steam Engine.

The complete system includes a boileratmospheric pressure condenser, steam engine, and electronic controls.

In a reciprocating steam engine, which of the following forms a kinematic link?

Steam is produced in a heavily insulated vertical fire-tube boiler with a superheater made from L stainless steelTIG welded. A recuperator not shown preheats intake air by heat exchanging with the burner exhaust gas.

reciprocating steam engine

The heat source for the boiler is a small camping stove burner fueled by butane or propane. A vertical electrode that measures conductivity senses water level in the boiler.

Feed water for the boiler is pre-heated in the condenser reservoir by exhaust steam from the engine. A water pump powered by the steam engine supplies feed water to the boiler.

An electromagnetic valve cuts off the water supply when boiler is full. A steam pressure sensor controls gas flow to burner; the flame is reduced to a pilot when boiler pressure reaches 40 bar PSI. A diaphragm servo valve controls gas flow. The fire-tube boiler requires 4 minutes to reach operating pressure.

Section Drawing of Advanced Uniflow Steam Engine Steam from the boiler enters the cylinder at one end and exits via exhaust ports at the other end, based on standard uniflow engine practice. This allows the intake valve to stay hot at all times. The valves are completely sealed within the cylinder. Intake Valve: A key feature of the advanced uniflow steam engine is electromagnetic cutoff for the intake valve, which eliminates losses from mechanical valve gear and allows precise control of speed and power.

When the piston reaches the leftmost end of the cylinder TDC — top dead center the tip of the exhaust valve impacts the intake valve, forcing it open against the pressure of the inlet steam the tip of the exhaust valve momentarily blocks the intake orifice, allowing zero cutoff. Once the intake valve opens, a small external solenoid coil is energized to keep it open the solenoid does not have enough power to open the intake valve by itself.As shown in the diagram, steam is admitted through an Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase.

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#10 USS Texas' Reciprocating Steam Engines

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reciprocating steam engine

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How a Steam Engine works (Fully Animated)

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Sign in via your Institution. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Sign in with your library card Please enter your library card number. Search within work. Related Content In this work induction port steam chest top-dead centre admission exhaust port condenser compound pendulum.

Publishing Information Preface. All rights reserved. Sign in to annotate. Delete Cancel Save. Cancel Save.By Samuel Halpern. The reciprocating engines were of the triple-expansion type with one high-pressure cylinder, one intermediate-pressure cylinder, and two low-pressure cylinders.

The turbine engine drove a central propeller of The turbine was designed to develop about 16, shaft horsepower SHP when running at revolutions per minute. At those numbers of revolutions, the ship was expected to make 21 knots. When running ahead at 83 revolutions per minute on her reciprocating engines, the entire power plant would develop about 59, horsepower, of which 18, horsepower would be contributed by the turbine. The arrangement of the propulsion and power generating plants for these ships are shown in the diagram below.

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Ahead of the engine rooms were six separate boiler rooms and 11 stokeholds. All of these compartments were separated from each other by transverse watertight bulkheads and protected by automatic drop-down watertight doors. Generating Steam. The ship carried 24 double-ended Scotch boilers, each 15 feet 9 inches in diameter and 20 feet long with 6 furnaces, three on each end.

The ship also carried 5 single-ended auxiliary boilers, also 15 feet 9 inches in diameter but only 11 feet 9 inches long with three furnaces each. All of the boilers were constructed in accordance with the rules of the Board of Trade for a working pressure of pounds-per-square-inch psiand were tested to a pressure of psi. They were arranged for working under natural draught conditions, assisted by fans that blew air into the open stokeholds.

With the reciprocating engines running at 75 revolutions per minute and 24 double-ended boilers hooked up, a supply rate of just over lbs of steam per minute per boiler would be produced. The Scotch marine fire-tube boilers such as the ones used on the Titanic contained a large quantity of water and took a long time to bring it up to pressure.

Typically, it took almost 12 hours from the time one of these boilers were lit until it could brought on line at a working pressure of lbs per square inch.

A bank of these boilers is shown in the photograph below.

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The three furnaces at the end of a Scotch boiler were in the form of corrugated fire-tubes. Each furnace terminated in a combustion chamber surrounded by water. From the combustion chamber the hot gases from the burning coals passed through a bank of relatively small fire-tubes surrounded by water to the smoke uptake box on the front face of the boiler. In the double-ended boilers, overall space was saved since furnaces on opposite ends shared the same combustion chamber.

reciprocating steam engine

The diagram below shows a schematic of one of these double-ended Scotch boilers viewed from the side. The boiler rooms, also called sections, were numbered 1 through 6. Boiler Room BR No. When lit, these boilers would be fired from stokehold No. The furnaces facing aft were fired from stokehold No. Ahead of BR No.

Similarly, ahead of BR No. However, due to the narrowing of the hull as we approached the bow, BR No. The Titanic had four elliptical-shaped funnels, but only the three forward funnels were used to take up the waste gases from the six boiler rooms.This site uses cookies to offer you a better browsing experience.

By using this website you consent to the use of cookies in accordance with this Cookie Notice. Steam Engines The Spilling steam engine: the only one of its kind in the world. The Spilling steam engine combines the thermodynamic advantages of a filling-controlled steam reciprocating engine with the design features of the modern diesel engine.

A unique construction worldwide making the engine a robust and variable power generator. The advantages of the Spilling steam engine are particularly significant in heat-driven back-pressure cycles or with varying steam flows. That makes it ideal for use in plants with smaller to medium outputs, e.

The Spilling steam engine is also optimal in combination with saturated steam boilers, as well as steam generators with moderate live steam pressures and temperatures. Here the modular design principle of the reciprocating engine permits the flexible adjustment of the expander to suit a wide range of customer requirements. Engineered as a single or multi-stage unit, Spilling steam engines can also be adapted optimally to various steam pressure differences.

Furthermore, the possibility of separately controlling individual cylinder groups of the engine means that different process steam requirements can be handled using only a single expansion engine. The outstanding partial load performance of the Spilling steam engine is achieved by the Spilling filling-regulation. This realises the operation over a wide range almost without pressure losses and so guarantees constant efficiency to large extent.

Technical Data. An overview of the design features. Services and Accessories A high-quality engine becomes even more valuable, the more flexible it can react to different situations. That is why Spilling steam engine units are individually designed for the particular application and configured using standard parts. We supply system accessories matching to your engine and your steam system such as e. If you would like to receive a dimensioning concept or a quote, please use our Spilling inquiry.

Steam turbines. Gas expansion engines. Steam compressors. OK This site uses cookies to offer you a better browsing experience.Its principle of operation consists essentially of a cylinder in which a close fitting piston is pushed back and forth or up and down according to the position of the cylinder.

Steam engine

If steam is admitted to the top of the cylinder, it will expand and push the piston ahead of it to the bottom. Then if steam is admitted to the bottom of the cylinder it will push the piston back up. This continual back and forth movement of the piston is called reciprocating motion, hence the name, reciprocating engine. To turn the propeller the motion must be changed to a rotary one.

This is accomplished by adding a piston rod, crosshead, connecting rod, crank and crankshaft. When the piston goes up and down it pushes the piston rod up and down with it. This through the crosshead pushes the connecting rod, the bottom end of which is attached to the crank.

The crank is merely an arm, one end of which is fastened to a round shaft crankshaft free to revolve in a fixed bearing and the other end to the connecting rod. As the connecting rod is pushed up and down it pushes the crank around in a circle the hub of which is the crankshaft.

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A propeller attached to the end of the crankshaft will revolve at the same speed as the crankshaft. The hole in the center of the lower cylinder head through which the piston rod passes must be sealed otherwise steam will blow out.

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Packing is installed around the piston rod in the stuffing box for this purpose. This is accomplished by the guide and slipper shown in the drawing. The slipper or shoe, as it is known, is attached to the crosshead and as it travels up and down the slipper is pushed by the angularity of the connecting rod against the guide which is a flat lubricated metal surface in line with the cylinder.

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Thus it is impossible for the piston rod to move sideways in its travel. As shown in the sketch steam from the boiler enters the steam chest through the steam line A completely filling the chest B.

In the above sketch the crank is shown in the top center position. The arrows indicate the direction of force and the movement of the piston. The valve will move up to cut off flow of steam to top of piston.

When the piston has been pushed downward a short way the valve moves up, covering the top port, stopping the steam from entering.A reciprocating engine is an engine that uses one or more pistons in order to convert pressure into rotational motion.

They use the reciprocating up-and-down motion of the pistons to translate this energy. A rotary engine would do the same task as reciprocating engine but in a very different manner due to its triangular rotor.

All types have one or more pistons, which follow the four-stroke cycle visible in Figure 1. Common engine block configurations include a single row of cylinders in-linetwo rows converging to a point V-enginea double zigzag W-engine and two horizontal rows opposed engine.

reciprocating steam engine

Figure 1: 4-stroke internal combustion engine. Figure 2: The crankshaft red converts reciprocating motion from the pistons grey which is often combined with a flywheel black.

The four-stroke cycle is what gives the engine its energy, but now it must translate this energy into rotational energy for the transmissiondrive shaft and wheels.

This is done by the crankshaftwhich is seen in Figure 2. The crankshaft converts this up-and-down motion into rotational motion, which is often combined with a flywheel to retain the discontinuous reciprocating energy as rotational energy. Please help us raise funds to update and increase the number of pages. Fossil Fuels. Nuclear Fuels. Acid Rain. Climate Change. Climate Feedback. Ocean Acidification. Rising Sea Level.

Reciprocating engine A reciprocating engine is an engine that uses one or more pistons in order to convert pressure into rotational motion. How it works All types have one or more pistons, which follow the four-stroke cycle visible in Figure 1. Intake: To begin the cycle, a fuel mixture is introduced inside the cylinder through the intake port, expanding the piston to the bottom of the cylinder.

Compression: The piston then gets pushed to the top, compressing the fuel mixture and igniting it via the spark plug. Ignition: The ignition pushes the piston downwards providing useful work to the engine. Exhaust: The waste chemicals get output through the exhaust port and the cycle repeats. Reciprocating Engine.

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